A Sickeningly Happy Smile

I don’t know about you, but I feel sick when I look at the picture of Omar Bashir’s beaming smile as he shakes hands with Salva Kiir. Bashir looks like a child who has just been told that if he shakes this man’s hand, he gets to go to Disney World. I can’t help but wonder how either man could smile at the other, much less beaming like that. Bashir is a war criminal.

Then again, looking at the situation in which both men find themselves, if they have made any progress toward an oil transfer agreement, how they can smile might actually be understandable. South Sudan’s economy is in a shambles and is only deteriorating faster as the days pass and oil does not flow. Without oil flowing, right now South Sudan is closer to becoming a failed state than prospering one. Salva Kiir is in jeopardy of becoming the leader who ran South Sudan out of business.

But Sudan is not much better off. It’s economy is in a free fall and subsidies which were essential in placating the masses so that they would not rise up against the Khartoum Regime have had to be removed. There are mass protests in the streets. Foreign governments and investors would not think about investing in Sudan or even loaning it money. In addition to the protests, rebel groups in the west, south, and east all are challenging it and the ones in the south are fighting, fairly successfully, for control over the last oil reserves the nation possesses. Opposition parties have gained enough momentum to publicly challenge the ruling party and there is for the first time in a long time, a reasonable hope for regime change.

Thus, the smile, that sickeningly happy smile.

Peace and a renewed flow of oil solve the major problems that both men face. Sudan needs it badly. South Sudan is probably in as good a negotiating position as it could hope for. Khartoum can’t afford to delay the opening of the spigot. So, a tentative agreement that allows the oil to flow.

“We’ll deal with the border region later. No one attack the other. We both need the money.” That is the obvious discussion. Mutual butt-saving.

In South Sudan, Salva Kiir will be able to fulfill promises for his suffering people and things will dramatically improve. Peace will bring massive investment and growth. The economy in the South could boom. The people will be vastly better off in the short run especially. Kiir’s butt saved.

But this will certainly put a damper on change in Sudan. The Khartoum Regime will strengthen. The inevitable collapse will not merely be delayed for a bit, but perhaps it will no longer be inevitable at all. Bashir’s butt saved.

The return of subsidies will quell demonstrations. In Darfur, the Nuba Mountains, Blue Nile and Eastern Sudan, there will be a newly strengthened Sudanese Armed Forces and police presence. Opposition leaders will suddenly become silent, at least the ones who do not go missing. Things could get a lot worse.

I know that it is a stretch to read to much into the smile of a consummate liar, but I just get the feeling that he’s not lying. Bashir seems genuinely happy. That makes me sick.

One response to “A Sickeningly Happy Smile

  1. August 29, 2012

    To: President Barack Obama
    Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
    Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice
    Special Assistant to the President Samantha Power.

    From: The Undersigned Genocide Scholars

    Subject: Humanitarian Catastrophe in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States of Sudan: THE U.S. MUST ACT NOW

    Dear President Obama, Secretary of State Clinton, Ambassador Rice and Special Assistant Power:

    On June 6, 2011, the Sudanese regime, led by indicted war criminal Omar al-Bashir, unleashed a wave of targeted ethnic killings against the people of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state, Sudan. Since then this state-sponsored violence has spread to engulf much of South Kordofan and Blue Nile states.

    The continuing multiple atrocities amount to at least crimes against humanity. This, in and of itself, is alarming. According to the tenets of the Responsibility to Protect now is the time to protect the targeted population.

    Satellite imagery has revealed mass graves, razed communities, and the indiscriminate low altitude aerial bombardment of civilian areas in South Kordofan state. Reliable eyewitnesses continue to report systematic government shelling and bombing of refugee evacuation routes, helicopter gunships hunting civilians as they flee their homes and farmland to hide in caves, and a deliberate and widespread blockage of humanitarian aid into South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. Anecdotal evidence of perpetrators screaming racist slurs as civilians are killed and raped are familiar to anyone who knows what has been happening in Darfur since 2003.

    Sufficient evidence exists for us to believe the Sudanese regime is attempting to annihilate those whom the government suspects of supporting the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North’s (SPLM-N) aims. Hence many local people are automatically targeted regardless of their true political affiliations.

    Hundreds of thousands of Sudanese remain trapped in South Kordofan, the victims of forced starvation, unable to farm their land. This critical situation largely mirrors what the same regime perpetrated in the 1990s, a case of genocide by attrition.

    Meanwhile in Blue Nile state, a scorched earth campaign by government forces has forced the SPLM-N to retreat, leaving tens of thousands with no protection from the perpetrators.

    As genocide scholars we have a solemn responsibility to educate the public about the horrors of the past in the hope of creating a future free of such crimes. We are the keepers of the chapters of human history that are difficult to confront, casting a dark shadow on all of humanity. We study the past to find ways to prevent such egregious actions in the future. We exist to remind the world of humanity’s capacity to commit genocide anywhere and against any group of people.
    It is because of that responsibility that we write to you. We call on you to fulfill your responsibilities as global leaders when it comes to confronting mankind’s most terrifying of crimes.

    Although we welcome your efforts to aid the refugees who have found their way to camps in South Sudan, we must point out that as world leaders you have the moral authority granted by the UN’s unanimous 2005 declaration of the Responsibility to Protect to demand delivery of aid to those inside Sudan. As guarantors of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed that same year, moreover, you have not fulfilled your legal and moral obligation to sanction violators of that agreement.

    The Sudanese regime continues to slaughter its own civilians, while denying them access to aid and in defiance of various international treaties and conventions it has signed, not to mention the Sudanese constitution.

    The Tripartite Agreement signed on 4 August 2012 in Addis Ababa, called upon the Government of Sudan to allow humanitarian access to all areas of the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile state dependent on certain conditions. Yet the Bashir regime’s track record leads us to fear it will interfere with aid delivery to those in most need. Seasonal inaccessibility also requires extraordinary and timely arrangements, such as airdrops. Hence we beseech you to take the following steps immediately to ensure aid is delivered to South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

    • Establish a land and air humanitarian corridor through which aid can be delivered without interference or hindrance from Sudanese security, military or other forces or proxies.
    • Secure arrangements with the SPLM-N for the airlifting of these supplies directly into territory in their control.
    • Inform relevant Sudanese officials that, due to the urgency of the catastrophe created by their actions, the United States will deliver relief directly into the war-affected areas underneath SPLM-N control.
    • Invite relevant Sudanese officials to observe the cargo to be delivered so they can verify the contents.
    • Use the most effective means possible, including airlifts, to get supplies into affected areas in SPLM-N control.

    • Keep armed escort planes on standby for the protection of aid delivery planes if necessary.

    It is therefore unwise to respond to the Khartoum regime’s various crimes with appeasement. By allowing the NCP to behave with impunity, the U.S. and the rest of the international community signals a weakness that only emboldens those who would flout its own international agreements.

    Furthermore, it is unwise to assume, as the international community does, that Khartoum intends the best for its citizens. Therefore we call on your administration to end Khartoum’s effective blockade of aid to South Kordofan and Blue Nile. The regime will continue to kill their own people if once again the United States declines to use the economic and diplomatic leverage at its disposal to enforce the delivery of aid into South Kordofan and Blue Nile states under internationally acceptable terms.

    We strongly urge you to act now to stave off the starvation of an entire people. Nothing would speak louder to the United States’ concern for the protection of international human rights than an immediate operation to deliver aid to the Nuba Mountains people while they are still alive and able to be helped.

    If your administration chooses to stand with the victims of Sudan’s continuing campaign of ethnic cleansing, then history will accord you respect and honor. If you do not stand with the victims, history will be much harsher.

    We very much look forward to hearing from each of you in regard to our letter and the suggestions therein.

    In solidarity with the victims, and with respect,

    Dr. Samuel Totten
    Professor Emeritus, and author of Genocide by Attrition: Nuba Mountains, Sudan (2012)
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
    samstertotten@gmail.com

    Dr. John Hubbel Weiss
    Associate Professor, History
    Cornell University

    Mr. David Kilgour, J.D.
    Former Canadian Secretary of State for Africa
    Ottawa, Canada

    Dr. Israel W. Charny (dual citizenship, U.S. & Israel)
    Director, Genocide Prevention Network and Past President of the International Association of Genocide Studies, and Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of Genocide
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Helen Fein
    Chair of the Board, Institute for the Study of Genocide, and author of Human Rights and Wrongs: Slavery, Terror and Genocide
    New York, NY

    Dr. Roger Smith
    Professor Emeritus and Past President of the International Association of Genocide Studies, and editor of Genocide: Essays Toward Understanding, Early Warning Prevention
    College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA

    Dr. John Hagan
    MacArthur Professor, and Co-Director, Center on Law & Globalizations, American Bar Foundation Co-author of Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
    Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
    Craig Etcheson
    Author of After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide.
    Canton, IL

    Dr. Ben Kiernan
    Whitney Griswold Professor of History and Director of Genocide Studies Program (Yale University
    Author of Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur
    Yale University
    New Haven, CT

    Dr. Herb Hirsch
    Professor, Department of Political Science and Co-Editor of Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal and author of Anti-Genocide: Building An American Movement to Prevent Genocide (Praeger, 2002)
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Hannibal Travis
    Associate Professor of Law and author of Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan (2010)
    Florida International University College of Law

    Professor Linda Melvern
    Department of International Politics, and author of A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide
    University of Aberystwyth, Wales

    Tomo Kriznar
    Former Slovenian Presidential Envoy to Sudan
    Co-Author of Documentary Films on Nuba and Darfur: Nuba, Pure People and Eyes and Ears of God

    Dr. Henry Theriault
    Professor and Chair, Department of Philosophy, and Co-Editor of Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
    Worcester State University, MA

    Dr. Eric Weitz
    Dean of Humanities and the Arts, and author of A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation
    City College, City University of New York
    New York, NY

    Dr. Isabel V. Hull
    Professor of History, and Author of Absolute Destruction
    Ithaca, New York

    Gerard Prunier
    Private Consultant and Fellow of the Atlantic Council

    Dr. Dzemal Sokolovic
    Professor
    Institute for Strengthening Democracy in Bosnia
    Konjic, Bosnia

    Dr. Gamal Adam
    Independent Scholar
    Head of the Canadian Darfuri Community

    Dr. Gregory Stanton
    President, Genocide Watch
    Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention, School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

    Dr. Rouben Adalian
    Director, Armenian National Institute
    Washington, D.C.

    Dr. Susanne Jonas
    Professor (retired), Latin American & Latino Studies, and author of The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads and U.S. Power
    University of California, Santa Cruz

    Dr. Robert Skloot
    Professor Emeritus, and Editor of The Theatre of Genocide: Four Plays About Mass Murder in Rwanda, Cambodia, Bosnia and Armenia.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Nicolas A. Robins
    Co-editor, Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal, and author of Genocide by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice
    Raleigh, North Carolina

    Dr. Rene Lemarchand
    Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science
    University of Florida, Gainesville

    Dr. John D. Ciorciari
    Assistant Professor of Public Policy
    Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    Dr. George Kent
    Professor, Department of Political Science
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu

    Dr. Elisa Von Joeden-Forgey
    Visiting Scholar, Department of History
    University of Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia, PA

    Dr. Peter Balakian
    Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor in Humanities, and author of The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response
    Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Dr. Ernesto Verdeja
    Assistant Professor of Political Science and Peace Studies
    University of Notre Dame

    Mr. Stephen D. Smith
    Executive Director, USC Shoah Foundation, and Adjunct Professor of Religion
    University of Southern California,
    Los Angeles, California

    Dr. Paul Slovic
    Professor, Department of Psychology
    University of Oregon, Eugene

    Dr. Jason Ross Arnold
    Assistant Professor of Political Science
    L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Jason K. Levy, Associate Professor, Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness and Director, National Ho9meland Security Project, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Amanda Grzyb (Dual Citizen, U.S. and Canada)
    Assistant Professor, Information and Media Studies, and editor of The World and Darfur: International Response to Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sudan
    University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    Dr. Alan L. Berger
    Reddock Family Eminent Scholar in Holocaust Studies, and Director, Center for the Study of Values and Violence After Auschwitz
    Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton

    Dr. Douglas H. Johnson
    International Expert, Abyei Boundaries Commission, 2005
    Author of The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars
    Haverford, PA and Oxford, UK

    Dr. Gagik Aroutiunian
    Associate Professor, Department of Art, Media & Design
    DePaul University, Chicago, IL

    Dr. Gerry Caplan
    Independent Scholar and Author of Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide
    Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada

    Dr. Dominik J. Schaller
    Lecturer, History Department, and author of The Origins of Genocide: Raphael Lemkin as a Historian of Mass Violence
    Ruprecht-Karls-Univeristy, Heidelberg, Germany

    Dr. Philip J. Spencer
    Director of the Helen Bamber Centre for the Study of Rights, Conflict and Mass Violence
    Kingston University
    Surrey, England

    Dr. Maureen S. Hiebert
    Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    University of Calgary (Canada)

    Dr. Eric Reeves
    Professor, and author of A Long Day’s Dying: Critical moments in the Darfur Genocide
    Smith College, Northhampton, MA

    Dr. Robert Hitchcock
    Professor, Department of Geography, and co-editor of Genocide of Indigenous Peoples
    Michigan State University, Lansing

    Dr. James Waller
    Cohen Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, author of Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing
    Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire

    Dr. Rubina Peroomian
    Research Associate
    University of California, Los Angeles

    Dr. Colin Tatz
    Visiting Fellow, Political and International Relations, and author of With Intent to Destroy: Reflecting on Genocide
    Australian National University, Canberra

    Dr. Kjell Anderson
    Project Manager
    The Hague Institute for Global Justice
    The Hague, The Netherlands

    Dr. Adam Jones
    Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, and author of Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction
    University of British Columbia

    Dr. Deborah Mayersen
    Vice Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow
    Institute for Social Transformation Research, Faculty of Arts
    University of Wollongong
    New South Wales, Australia

    Dr. Donald W. Beachler
    Associate Professor of Politics
    Ithaca College
    Ithaca, New York

    Dr. Elihu D. Richter, MD MPH
    Jerusalem Center for Genocide Prevention and Hebrew-University-Hadassah School of Public Health and Community Medicine
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Matthias Bjornlund
    Historian/Lecturer
    Danish Institute for the Study Abroad, Copenhagen, Denmark

    José Carlos Moreira da Silva Filho
    Professor, Criminal Law Post Graduate Department
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Port Alegra RS – Brazil

    Dr. Herbert-Ekwe
    Independent Scholar and author of Readings from Reading: Essays on African Politics, Genocide, Literature
    London, England

    Tamar Pileggi
    Co-Founder, The Jerusalem Center for Genocide Prevention
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Uriel Levy
    Director, Combat Genocide Association
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Penny Green
    International State Crime Initiative
    Kings College, London

    Dr. Tony Ward
    Professor of Law
    University of Hull, UK
    Ms. Amy Fagin
    International Association of Genocide Scholars
    New Salem, MA

    Dr. Ann Weiss
    Director, Eyes from the Ashes Educational Foundation, and author of The Last Album: Eyes from the Ashes of Auschwitz-Birkenau
    Bryn Mawr, PA

    Dr. Rick Halperin
    Director, Embrey Human Rights Program
    Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX

    Mr. Geoff Hill
    Bureau Chief, The Washington Times,
    Johannesburg, South Africa
    South Africa

    August 29, 2012

    To: President Barack Obama
    Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
    Ambassador to the United Nations Susan Rice
    Special Assistant to the President Samantha Power.

    From: The Undersigned Genocide Scholars

    Subject: Humanitarian Catastrophe in South Kordofan and Blue Nile States of Sudan: THE U.S. MUST ACT NOW

    Dear President Obama, Secretary of State Clinton, Ambassador Rice and Special Assistant Power:

    On June 6, 2011, the Sudanese regime, led by indicted war criminal Omar al-Bashir, unleashed a wave of targeted ethnic killings against the people of the Nuba Mountains in South Kordofan state, Sudan. Since then this state-sponsored violence has spread to engulf much of South Kordofan and Blue Nile states.

    The continuing multiple atrocities amount to at least crimes against humanity. This, in and of itself, is alarming. According to the tenets of the Responsibility to Protect now is the time to protect the targeted population.

    Satellite imagery has revealed mass graves, razed communities, and the indiscriminate low altitude aerial bombardment of civilian areas in South Kordofan state. Reliable eyewitnesses continue to report systematic government shelling and bombing of refugee evacuation routes, helicopter gunships hunting civilians as they flee their homes and farmland to hide in caves, and a deliberate and widespread blockage of humanitarian aid into South Kordofan and Blue Nile states. Anecdotal evidence of perpetrators screaming racist slurs as civilians are killed and raped are familiar to anyone who knows what has been happening in Darfur since 2003.

    Sufficient evidence exists for us to believe the Sudanese regime is attempting to annihilate those whom the government suspects of supporting the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North’s (SPLM-N) aims. Hence many local people are automatically targeted regardless of their true political affiliations.

    Hundreds of thousands of Sudanese remain trapped in South Kordofan, the victims of forced starvation, unable to farm their land. This critical situation largely mirrors what the same regime perpetrated in the 1990s, a case of genocide by attrition.

    Meanwhile in Blue Nile state, a scorched earth campaign by government forces has forced the SPLM-N to retreat, leaving tens of thousands with no protection from the perpetrators.

    As genocide scholars we have a solemn responsibility to educate the public about the horrors of the past in the hope of creating a future free of such crimes. We are the keepers of the chapters of human history that are difficult to confront, casting a dark shadow on all of humanity. We study the past to find ways to prevent such egregious actions in the future. We exist to remind the world of humanity’s capacity to commit genocide anywhere and against any group of people.
    It is because of that responsibility that we write to you. We call on you to fulfill your responsibilities as global leaders when it comes to confronting mankind’s most terrifying of crimes.

    Although we welcome your efforts to aid the refugees who have found their way to camps in South Sudan, we must point out that as world leaders you have the moral authority granted by the UN’s unanimous 2005 declaration of the Responsibility to Protect to demand delivery of aid to those inside Sudan. As guarantors of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed that same year, moreover, you have not fulfilled your legal and moral obligation to sanction violators of that agreement.

    The Sudanese regime continues to slaughter its own civilians, while denying them access to aid and in defiance of various international treaties and conventions it has signed, not to mention the Sudanese constitution.

    The Tripartite Agreement signed on 4 August 2012 in Addis Ababa, called upon the Government of Sudan to allow humanitarian access to all areas of the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile state dependent on certain conditions. Yet the Bashir regime’s track record leads us to fear it will interfere with aid delivery to those in most need. Seasonal inaccessibility also requires extraordinary and timely arrangements, such as airdrops. Hence we beseech you to take the following steps immediately to ensure aid is delivered to South Kordofan and Blue Nile.

    • Establish a land and air humanitarian corridor through which aid can be delivered without interference or hindrance from Sudanese security, military or other forces or proxies.
    • Secure arrangements with the SPLM-N for the airlifting of these supplies directly into territory in their control.
    • Inform relevant Sudanese officials that, due to the urgency of the catastrophe created by their actions, the United States will deliver relief directly into the war-affected areas underneath SPLM-N control.
    • Invite relevant Sudanese officials to observe the cargo to be delivered so they can verify the contents.
    • Use the most effective means possible, including airlifts, to get supplies into affected areas in SPLM-N control.

    • Keep armed escort planes on standby for the protection of aid delivery planes if necessary.

    It is therefore unwise to respond to the Khartoum regime’s various crimes with appeasement. By allowing the NCP to behave with impunity, the U.S. and the rest of the international community signals a weakness that only emboldens those who would flout its own international agreements.

    Furthermore, it is unwise to assume, as the international community does, that Khartoum intends the best for its citizens. Therefore we call on your administration to end Khartoum’s effective blockade of aid to South Kordofan and Blue Nile. The regime will continue to kill their own people if once again the United States declines to use the economic and diplomatic leverage at its disposal to enforce the delivery of aid into South Kordofan and Blue Nile states under internationally acceptable terms.

    We strongly urge you to act now to stave off the starvation of an entire people. Nothing would speak louder to the United States’ concern for the protection of international human rights than an immediate operation to deliver aid to the Nuba Mountains people while they are still alive and able to be helped.

    If your administration chooses to stand with the victims of Sudan’s continuing campaign of ethnic cleansing, then history will accord you respect and honor. If you do not stand with the victims, history will be much harsher.

    We very much look forward to hearing from each of you in regard to our letter and the suggestions therein.

    In solidarity with the victims, and with respect,

    Dr. Samuel Totten
    Professor Emeritus, and author of Genocide by Attrition: Nuba Mountains, Sudan (2012)
    University of Arkansas, Fayetteville
    samstertotten@gmail.com

    Dr. John Hubbel Weiss
    Associate Professor, History
    Cornell University

    Mr. David Kilgour, J.D.
    Former Canadian Secretary of State for Africa
    Ottawa, Canada

    Dr. Israel W. Charny (dual citizenship, U.S. & Israel)
    Director, Genocide Prevention Network and Past President of the International Association of Genocide Studies, and Chief Editor, Encyclopedia of Genocide
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Helen Fein
    Chair of the Board, Institute for the Study of Genocide, and author of Human Rights and Wrongs: Slavery, Terror and Genocide
    New York, NY

    Dr. Roger Smith
    Professor Emeritus and Past President of the International Association of Genocide Studies, and editor of Genocide: Essays Toward Understanding, Early Warning Prevention
    College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA

    Dr. John Hagan
    MacArthur Professor, and Co-Director, Center on Law & Globalizations, American Bar Foundation Co-author of Darfur and the Crime of Genocide (Cambridge University Press, 2008)
    Northwestern University, Chicago, IL
    Craig Etcheson
    Author of After the Killing Fields: Lessons from the Cambodian Genocide.
    Canton, IL

    Dr. Ben Kiernan
    Whitney Griswold Professor of History and Director of Genocide Studies Program (Yale University
    Author of Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur
    Yale University
    New Haven, CT

    Dr. Herb Hirsch
    Professor, Department of Political Science and Co-Editor of Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal and author of Anti-Genocide: Building An American Movement to Prevent Genocide (Praeger, 2002)
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Hannibal Travis
    Associate Professor of Law and author of Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq and Sudan (2010)
    Florida International University College of Law

    Professor Linda Melvern
    Department of International Politics, and author of A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide
    University of Aberystwyth, Wales

    Tomo Kriznar
    Former Slovenian Presidential Envoy to Sudan
    Co-Author of Documentary Films on Nuba and Darfur: Nuba, Pure People and Eyes and Ears of God

    Dr. Henry Theriault
    Professor and Chair, Department of Philosophy, and Co-Editor of Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal
    Worcester State University, MA

    Dr. Eric Weitz
    Dean of Humanities and the Arts, and author of A Century of Genocide: Utopias of Race and Nation
    City College, City University of New York
    New York, NY

    Dr. Isabel V. Hull
    Professor of History, and Author of Absolute Destruction
    Ithaca, New York

    Gerard Prunier
    Private Consultant and Fellow of the Atlantic Council

    Dr. Dzemal Sokolovic
    Professor
    Institute for Strengthening Democracy in Bosnia
    Konjic, Bosnia

    Dr. Gamal Adam
    Independent Scholar
    Head of the Canadian Darfuri Community

    Dr. Gregory Stanton
    President, Genocide Watch
    Research Professor in Genocide Studies and Prevention, School for Conflict Analysis and Resolution
    George Mason University, Fairfax, VA

    Dr. Rouben Adalian
    Director, Armenian National Institute
    Washington, D.C.

    Dr. Susanne Jonas
    Professor (retired), Latin American & Latino Studies, and author of The Battle for Guatemala: Rebels, Death Squads and U.S. Power
    University of California, Santa Cruz

    Dr. Robert Skloot
    Professor Emeritus, and Editor of The Theatre of Genocide: Four Plays About Mass Murder in Rwanda, Cambodia, Bosnia and Armenia.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Nicolas A. Robins
    Co-editor, Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal, and author of Genocide by the Oppressed: Subaltern Genocide in Theory and Practice
    Raleigh, North Carolina

    Dr. Rene Lemarchand
    Professor Emeritus, Department of Political Science
    University of Florida, Gainesville

    Dr. John D. Ciorciari
    Assistant Professor of Public Policy
    Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy
    University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
    Dr. George Kent
    Professor, Department of Political Science
    University of Hawaii, Honolulu

    Dr. Elisa Von Joeden-Forgey
    Visiting Scholar, Department of History
    University of Pennsylvania
    Philadelphia, PA

    Dr. Peter Balakian
    Donald M. and Constance H. Rebar Professor in Humanities, and author of The Burning Tigris: The Armenian Genocide and America’s Response
    Colgate University, Hamilton, NY

    Dr. Ernesto Verdeja
    Assistant Professor of Political Science and Peace Studies
    University of Notre Dame

    Mr. Stephen D. Smith
    Executive Director, USC Shoah Foundation, and Adjunct Professor of Religion
    University of Southern California,
    Los Angeles, California

    Dr. Paul Slovic
    Professor, Department of Psychology
    University of Oregon, Eugene

    Dr. Jason Ross Arnold
    Assistant Professor of Political Science
    L. Douglas Wilder School of Government and Public Affairs
    Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Jason K. Levy, Associate Professor, Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness and Director, National Ho9meland Security Project, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA

    Dr. Amanda Grzyb (Dual Citizen, U.S. and Canada)
    Assistant Professor, Information and Media Studies, and editor of The World and Darfur: International Response to Crimes Against Humanity in Western Sudan
    University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    Dr. Alan L. Berger
    Reddock Family Eminent Scholar in Holocaust Studies, and Director, Center for the Study of Values and Violence After Auschwitz
    Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton

    Dr. Douglas H. Johnson
    International Expert, Abyei Boundaries Commission, 2005
    Author of The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars
    Haverford, PA and Oxford, UK

    Dr. Gagik Aroutiunian
    Associate Professor, Department of Art, Media & Design
    DePaul University, Chicago, IL

    Dr. Gerry Caplan
    Independent Scholar and Author of Rwanda: The Preventable Genocide
    Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada

    Dr. Dominik J. Schaller
    Lecturer, History Department, and author of The Origins of Genocide: Raphael Lemkin as a Historian of Mass Violence
    Ruprecht-Karls-Univeristy, Heidelberg, Germany

    Dr. Philip J. Spencer
    Director of the Helen Bamber Centre for the Study of Rights, Conflict and Mass Violence
    Kingston University
    Surrey, England

    Dr. Maureen S. Hiebert
    Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada
    University of Calgary (Canada)

    Dr. Eric Reeves
    Professor, and author of A Long Day’s Dying: Critical moments in the Darfur Genocide
    Smith College, Northhampton, MA

    Dr. Robert Hitchcock
    Professor, Department of Geography, and co-editor of Genocide of Indigenous Peoples
    Michigan State University, Lansing

    Dr. James Waller
    Cohen Professor of Holocaust and Genocide Studies, author of Becoming Evil: How Ordinary People Commit Genocide and Mass Killing
    Keene State College, Keene, New Hampshire

    Dr. Rubina Peroomian
    Research Associate
    University of California, Los Angeles

    Dr. Colin Tatz
    Visiting Fellow, Political and International Relations, and author of With Intent to Destroy: Reflecting on Genocide
    Australian National University, Canberra

    Dr. Kjell Anderson
    Project Manager
    The Hague Institute for Global Justice
    The Hague, The Netherlands

    Dr. Adam Jones
    Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, and author of Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction
    University of British Columbia

    Dr. Deborah Mayersen
    Vice Chancellor’s Postdoctoral Research Fellow
    Institute for Social Transformation Research, Faculty of Arts
    University of Wollongong
    New South Wales, Australia

    Dr. Donald W. Beachler
    Associate Professor of Politics
    Ithaca College
    Ithaca, New York

    Dr. Elihu D. Richter, MD MPH
    Jerusalem Center for Genocide Prevention and Hebrew-University-Hadassah School of Public Health and Community Medicine
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Matthias Bjornlund
    Historian/Lecturer
    Danish Institute for the Study Abroad, Copenhagen, Denmark

    José Carlos Moreira da Silva Filho
    Professor, Criminal Law Post Graduate Department
    Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, Port Alegra RS – Brazil

    Dr. Herbert-Ekwe
    Independent Scholar and author of Readings from Reading: Essays on African Politics, Genocide, Literature
    London, England

    Tamar Pileggi
    Co-Founder, The Jerusalem Center for Genocide Prevention
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Uriel Levy
    Director, Combat Genocide Association
    Jerusalem, Israel

    Dr. Penny Green
    International State Crime Initiative
    Kings College, London

    Dr. Tony Ward
    Professor of Law
    University of Hull, UK
    Ms. Amy Fagin
    International Association of Genocide Scholars
    New Salem, MA

    Dr. Ann Weiss
    Director, Eyes from the Ashes Educational Foundation, and author of The Last Album: Eyes from the Ashes of Auschwitz-Birkenau
    Bryn Mawr, PA

    Dr. Rick Halperin
    Director, Embrey Human Rights Program
    Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX

    Mr. Geoff Hill
    Bureau Chief, The Washington Times,
    Johannesburg, South Africa
    South Africa

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